The IT2 Survey: contextual knowledge (XK) influences on teacher candidates’ intention to integrate technology

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5 Scopus citations


Prior to this study, a testable model for the influence of contextual knowledge (XK) on teacher candidates’ intention to integrate technology into classroom instruction had not been established. We applied the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (DTPB) to aid us in this effort. Our work (a) provided a theoretical conceptualization for factors of XK through application of the DTPB, (b) represented the synergistic effects among these factors, and (c) allowed us to explore their influences on teacher candidates’ intentions to teach with technology. To assess our model, which includes factors such as teacher candidates’ beliefs, attitudes, and efficacy, we developed an instrument, the Intention to Teach with Technology (IT2) Survey. Results from the structural equation model of the survey data indicated our model fit the data very well and readily accounted for various XK factors, the relations among these factors, and their influence on teacher candidates’ intentions to integrate technology into teaching. Given the complexity of the context in any teaching situation, its relation to and influence on technology integration, and the previously limited examination of context in research and teacher development, the results indicate the proposed model is quite plausible, accounting for 75% of the variation in intention. The study demonstrates the IT2 Survey is an effective instrument to examine factors associated with XK and their influences on technology integration. Our work extends theory about technology integration by including XK and has implications for researchers as well as practitioners who seek to advance technology integration in preparation programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2729-2760
Number of pages32
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Assessment instrument
  • Contextual factors
  • Decomposed theory of planned behavior
  • Intentionality
  • Technology infusion
  • Technology integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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