Teacher-Delivered Strategies to Increase Students’ Opportunities to Respond: A Systematic Methodological Review

Eric Alan Common, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Emily D. Cantwell, Nelson C. Brunsting, Wendy Oakes, Kathryn Ann Germer, Leslie Ann Bross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


We conducted this systematic review to map the literature and classify the evidence-based status of teacher-directed strategies to increase students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) during whole-group instruction across the K-12 continuum. Specifically, we conducted this review to determine whether OTR could be classified as an evidence-based practice according to Council for Exceptional Children’s Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. We examined the extent to which 21 included studies addressed quality indicators and evidence-based practice standards using a modified, weighted criterion for methodologically sound studies. Three studies met all eight quality indicators and 11 studies met or exceeded 80% of quality indicators following a weighted criterion to define methodologically sound studies. Results indicated teacher-directed OTR strategy of response cards in K-12 school settings to be a potentially evidence-based practice. Educational implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-84
Number of pages18
JournalBehavioral Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020


  • active student responding
  • choral responding
  • evidence-based practice
  • opportunities to respond
  • response cards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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