Surface morphology of TiSi2 on silicon

Hyeongtag Jeon, R. J. Nemanich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The formation mechanisms and morphology of TiSi2 on silicon are explored. TiSi2 is formed on atomically clean Si(100) and Si(111) substrates by UHV deposition of titanium and in situ annealing. The TiSi2 formation process is monitored with in situ low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy, and the morphology is examined with ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Titanium thickness between 50 and 400 Å were examined. The TiSi2 formation process involves interdiffusion at temperatures less than 400°C, formation of a metastable TiSi2 phase at about 500°C, and transformation to the stable TiSi2 phase at about 700°C. The results show TiSi2 island formation after annealing at between 700 and 900°C, depending on the film thickness. The low energy electron diffraction measurements showed that the exposed silicon regions exhibited reconstructed surface structures after the island formation. The island formation process is described in terms of a wetting model, and the surface energies for nucleation and island formation are related.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-363
Number of pages7
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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