Heterogeneous silicon integration by ultra-high vacuum wafer bonding

M. J. Kim, Ray Carpenter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Heterogeneous integration of technologically important materials, such as SiC/Si, GaN/Si, Ge/Si, Si/nano-Si/Si, SiC-on-insulator (SiCOI), and ZrO2/SiO2/Si, was successfully made by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) wafer bonding. A unique, UHV bonding unit, especially designed to control interface structure, chemistry, and crystallographic orientation within narrow limits, was used to produce homophase and heterophase planar interfaces. In-situ thin-film-deposition capability in conjunction with the wafer bonding offered even more flexibility for producing integrated artificial structures. Prebonding surface preparation was critically important for the formation of strong bonded interfaces. The substrate-surface morphology was examined by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) prior to bonding. In-situ Auger spectroscopy measurements of surface chemistry were invaluable predictors of bonding behaviors. Plasma processing very effectively cleaned the substrates, achieving a near-perfect interfacial bond at the atomic scale. The integrity of the bonded interfaces was studied in the light of their structural and chemical characteristics analyzed by high-resolution, analytical electron microscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)849-854
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2003


  • Heterogeneous integration
  • Interface
  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Wafer bonding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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