Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence

Carlos E. Santos, Kathrine Galligan, Erin Pahlke, Richard Fabes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)252-264
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Issue number2 PART 3
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013


  • Adolescent boys
  • Boys' friendships
  • Emotional stoicism
  • Gender development
  • Gender gap in achievement
  • Gender-typed behaviors
  • Masculinity ideology
  • Math achievement scores
  • Physical toughness
  • Self-esteem
  • Single-sex classes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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