Fragile X syndrome: Neural network models of sequencing and memory

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24 Scopus citations


A comparative framework of memory processes in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and typically developing (TYP) mental age-match children is presented. Results indicate a divergence in sequencing skills, such that males with FXS recall sequences similarly to TYP children around five and a half years of age, but the males with FXS recall significantly worse when compared to TYP children around seven and a half years of age. Performance on one working memory measure, an n-back Card Task, is modeled with a neural network. To date, no network models explicate the sequencing and memory processes in those with FXS. Noise was added to various levels (weight matrices) in the FXS model and outputs approximated human FXS performance. Three models were compared: (1) FXS; (2) younger mental age-TYP matches; (3) older reading level-TYP matches. Modeling can help to reify conceptualizations of deficits and to guide in the creation of more valid, science-based remediations. The FXS model suggested that the levels of phonological representation and sequencing in memory were candidates for targeted therapies in males with FXS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)274-292
Number of pages19
JournalCognitive Systems Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2008


  • FXS
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Intellectual disabilities
  • Literacy
  • Memory in atypical populations
  • Modeling
  • Neural networks
  • Phonology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence


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