Empathy: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation to prosocial behavior

Nancy Eisenberg, Richard Fabes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

575 Scopus citations


Empathy, sympathy, and related vicarious emotional responses are important concepts in developmental, social, and clinical psychology. The purpose of this paper is to examine conceptual and methodological issues concerning the assessment of vicarious emotional responding and to present data from a series of multimethod studies on the assessment of empathy-related reactions and their association with prosocial behavior. The findings presented are consistent with several conclusions: (a) In some contexts, physiological, facial, and self-report indexes can be useful markers of vicarious emotional responses, (b) other-oriented sympathetic responding is positively related to prosocial behavior (particularly altruism) whereas personal distress reactions sometimes are associated with low levels of helping, and (c) physiological arousal is higher for personal distress than sympathetic reactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-149
Number of pages19
JournalMotivation and Emotion
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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