Development of a short-form version of the physical education classroom instrument: Measuring secondary pupils' disruptive behaviours

Paul R. Krech, Pamela Kulinna, Donetta Cothran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Background: Effective classroom management is the cornerstone of successful teaching. Behavioural issues affect the classroom climate as well as the time available for learning. Pupil misbehaviours can also contribute to teacher stress and burn out resulting in teachers leaving the profession. It is important for us to understand more about pupil misbehaviours from teachers' and pupils' perspectives in order to help teachers and schools create effective learning environments. Purpose: This study was designed to shorten an existing survey instrument that addresses pupil misbehaviour patterns. The original instrument was created for pupils, teachers and researchers to describe the spectrum of pupil disruptive behaviours in physical education class settings that impact classroom management. The resulting more parsimonious instrument can be used by teachers to gain insight into pupils' perspectives of pupil misbehaviours and may lead to developing appropriate strategies to minimize disruptions to pupil learning. Participants and setting: Participants were 2309 secondary (junior high and high school boys and girls); along with 303 teachers (men and women) from three Midwestern states using secondary data sets. A new sample of 422 junior high and high school pupils also participated from two school districts in the Southwestern US with 55.2% male and 44.8% female participants, and reported ethnic backgrounds of European American/ Caucasian (44.1%), African-American (7.8%), Latino/Hispanic (28.0%), multiracial or other (12.6.%), and 7.6% of non-identified ethnic background. Research design: This study had multiple phases including single and multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) including: (a) CFA with teacher, junior high, high school pupil secondary data sources; (b) CFA with junior high and high school pupil secondary data only; (c) the development of a shorter and friendlier instrument based on logic and factor loadings; and (d) CFAs with the new pupil sample (n = 422 secondary pupils) to assess the fit of the data to the shortened 20-item model. Data collection: Pupils completed the surveys using a predefined protocol during physical education class time in both the current and previous data collection procedures. Teachers in the previous study completed surveys during their preparation time. Data analysis: CFA conducted with LISREL version 8.8 and internal consistency reliability assessments using Cronbach's alpha. Findings: Results suggested that a more parsimonious 20-item instrument with five subscales (i.e. Aggressive, Low Engagement, Fails to Follow Directions, Harmful, Distracts) was developed for use with secondary pupils (i.e. junior high and high school) only. Internal consistency reliability was also high for secondary pupils. Conclusions: Future study with another sample of teachers is needed to develop a shortened instrument that can be used by teachers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-225
Number of pages17
JournalPhysical Education and Sport Pedagogy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2010


  • Misbehaviours
  • Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Education
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of a short-form version of the physical education classroom instrument: Measuring secondary pupils' disruptive behaviours'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this