Collaboration cosmopolitanism: what are the effects on the “overlooked majority” of scientists and engineers?

Qingqing Wang, Jiwon Jung, Barry Bozeman, Monica Gaughan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Despite the fact that the vast majority of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workers are those with a bachelor’s degree, past studies in science policy and higher education are largely focused on research collaboration and nearly all examine doctoral-level or academic researchers. We use licensed data from the U.S. National Science Foundation to examine the impacts of collaboration cosmopolitanism on the job satisfaction and salary of bachelor-level science professionals. The concept of collaboration cosmopolitanism (Bozeman and Corley in Research Policy, 33(4), 599–616, 2004) pertains to various aspects of institutional and geographic distance in collaboration. We found that STEM college graduates having double-majored or minored in other fields tend to have higher levels of collaboration cosmopolitanism. We also found a significant positive relationship between collaboration cosmopolitanism and career outcomes. Women with STEM bachelor’s degrees are paid less than men, but women engaging in higher collaboration cosmopolitanism enjoy more benefits towards career outcomes than do men. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for STEM higher education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1011-1034
Number of pages24
JournalHigher Education
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019


  • Collaboration
  • Collaboration cosmopolitanism
  • College graduates
  • Job satisfaction
  • STEM degree
  • Salary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


Dive into the research topics of 'Collaboration cosmopolitanism: what are the effects on the “overlooked majority” of scientists and engineers?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this