Autonomous smart windows may be integrated with a stack of active components, such as electrochromic devices, to modulate the opacity/transparency by an applied voltage. This voltage may be generated with a visibly transparent photovoltaic device. This paper describes the processing and performance of zinc oxide (ZnO) films for integration with electrochromic stacks. Sputtered ZnO (2% Mn) films on indium-tin oxide with transparency in the visible range were used to fabricate metal-semiconductor (MS), metal-insulator-semiconductor, and p-i-n heterojunction devices, and their photovoltaic conversion under ultraviolet (UV) illumination was evaluated with and without oxygen plasma-treated surface electrodes (Au, Ag, Al, and Ti/Ag). The MS Schottky parameters were fit against the generalized Bardeen model to obtain the density of interface states (Dit ≈ 8.0 × 1011 eV-1cm-2) and neutral level (Eo ≈ - 5.2 eV). These devices have exhibited a photoconductive behavior at λ = 365 nm, and low-noise Ag-ZnO detectors have exhibited the responsivity (R ) and photoconductive gain ( G ) of 1.93 × 10-4 A/W and 6.57 × 10-4 , respectively. Confirmed via matched-pair analysis, postmetallization oxygen plasma treatment of Ag and Ti/Ag electrodes has resulted in increased Schottky barrier heights, which maximized with a 2-nm SiO2 electron blocking layer, coupled with the suppression of recombination at the MS interface and blocking of majority carriers. For interdigitated devices under monochromatic UV-C illumination, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) was 1.2 V and short-circuit current density (Jsc), due to minority carrier tunneling, was 0.68 mA/cm2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8401946
Pages (from-to)3291-3299
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2018


  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Schottky barriers
  • photovoltaic detectors
  • semiconductor-insulator interfaces
  • semiconductor-metal interfaces
  • ultraviolet (UV) detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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