Working Alliance in the Early Phase of Counseling

Anna M. Kokotovic, Terence J. Tracey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

198 Scopus citations


The relation of the working alliance, as assessed by the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), was examined with respect to (a) a set of client variables (hostility, quality of past and current relationships, level of adjustment, and type of presenting concern) and (b) premature termination status. Ratings on these variables were collected after the first session from 15 counselors rating 144 clients seen at a university counseling center, as well as from 98 of these clients. A canonical analysis of the WAI scales and the client variables revealed that both client and counselor assessments of the alliance were related to the quality of past and current relationships, and level of adjustment as rated by the counselor but not the client. The working alliance was not related to different client presenting concerns. Further, there was no relation between the working alliance and premature termination status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-21
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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