Who owns international business?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


International business in the past century has largely been the domain of large multinational enterprises and banks, as well as small exporting and importing companies. The scope of international business activity has grown in recent years, and today there are many State-owned companies involved in international business activities, as well as financial investors rather than only industrial or commercial companies undertaking foreign direct investment (FDI). Government policy toward international business has largely been supportive since the 1990s, while concerns have arisen particularly in regard to the activities of State-owned enterprises and also the activities of non-traditional investors such as investment funds. To achieve the greatest benefits from FDI and trade, governments need to understand which companies are making the key decisions in global value chains and to collaborate in rule-setting and in guiding companies to pursue desirable activities and to limit non-business goal-seeking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-200
Number of pages18
JournalTransnational Corporations
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • cross-border M&A
  • foreign direct investment
  • global value chains
  • multinational enterprises
  • state-owned enterprises

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Political Science and International Relations


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