This article identifies instructional strategies, curricula, and organizational structures in the research literature that have been successful in encouraging girls' participation and achievement in science: science instruction in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten, relevant curricula that address girls' interests and provide opportunities for genuine inquiry and tinkering experiences, greater emphasis on physical science and the use of computers, integration of reading and writing in science, attention to how groups are formed in classrooms, activities that build self-efficacy, appropriate role models, messages that science is for everyone, and student-centered teaching. Special attention is given to the needs of children in preschool and kindergarten. In addition, research on the impact of single-sex classrooms and grouping is reviewed, along with the use of children's fictional literature to teach science. Implications derived from research literature include changes in what is taught, how it is taught, how teachers are prepared, and how these changes are paid for.
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