What counts as response and intervention in RTI? a sociocultural analysis

Alfredo Artiles, Elizabeth B. Kozleski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Response to Intervention (RTI) is being used in districts and states around the United States (U.S.) as a means to enhance learning opportunities and address the needs of struggling learners. Increasing attention to RTI in the research community and the recent creation of a large national technical assistance center reflect its growing visibility. Because equity issues for ethnic and linguistically diverse students are purportedly addressed in RTI models, we conduct a sociocultural analysis of its building blocks, namely the definitions and assumptions embedded in the notions of «response» and «intervention». We used interdisciplinary theoretical and empirical insights about the cultural nature of learning and development to inform our analysis. We discuss how the assumptions of RTI might unintentionally create blind spots for researchers and practitioners about how to design, conduct, and assess learning environments, particularly for diverse students. We conclude with reflections about future directions in this research area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)949-954
Number of pages6
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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