Water intake and urinary hydration biomarkers in children

S. A. Kavouras, D. Bougatsas, E. C. Johnson, G. Arnaoutis, S. Tsipouridi, D. B. Panagiotakos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background/Objectives:The aims of the study were as follows: (1) examine fluid intake and urinary hydration markers of children in Greece, (2) determine the calculated relative risk of hypohydration in children who did not meet the recommendations for daily water intake provided by the Institute of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority compared with those who did and (3) analyze the efficacy of the recommendations as a method to achieve euhydration in children.Subjects/Methods:One hundred and fifty Greek boys and girls (age 9-13) recorded their fluid intake for 2 consecutive days. A 24-h urine collection was obtained during the second day. Fluid intake records were analyzed for total water intake from fluids (TWI-F), and urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, color, specific gravity and volume. Urine osmolality ≥800 mmol/kg H 2 O was defined as hypohydration.Results:Water intake from fluids was 1729 (1555-1905) and 1550 (1406-1686) ml/d for boys and girls, respectively. Prevalence of hypohydration was 33% (44% of boys, 23% of girls). Children who failed to meet TWI-F recommendations demonstrated a risk of hypohydration that was 1.99-2.12 times higher than those who met recommendations (P≤0.01). Boys between 9 and 13 years displayed urine osmolality of 777 (725-830) mmol/kg, and urine specific gravity of 1.021 (1.019-1.022), which was higher than those in girls between 9-13 years (P≤0.015), and >27% were classified as hypohydrated despite meeting water intake recommendations.Conclusions:Failure to meet TWI-F guidelines increased calculated relative risk of hypohydration in children. Boys between 9 and 13 years are at greater hazard regardless of meeting guidelines and may require greater water intake to avoid elevated urine concentration and ensure adequate hydration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)530-535
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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