Visuomotor and audiomotor processing in continuous force production of oral and manual effectors

Edward Ofori, Torrey M.J. Loucks, Jacob J. Sosnoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The authors examined force control in oral and manual effectors as a function of sensory feedback (i.e., visual and auditory). Participants produced constant isometric force via index finger flexion and lower lip elevation to 2 force levels (10% and 20% maximal voluntary contraction) and received either online visual or online auditory feedback. Mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of force output were used to quantify the magnitude of force variability. Power spectral measures and approximate entropy of force output were calculated to quantify the structure of force variability. Overall, it was found that the oral effector conditions were more variable (e.g., coefficient of variation) than the manual effector conditions regardless of sensory feedback. No effector differences were found for the structure of force variability with visual or auditory feedback. Oral and manual force control appears to involve different control mechanisms regulating continuous force production in the presence of visual or auditory feedback.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-96
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of motor behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • force variability
  • online control processes
  • sensory feedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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