Visualizing aerosol-particle injection for diffractive-imaging experiments

Salah Awe, Richard Kirian, Niko Eckerskorn, Max Wiedorn, Daniel A. Horke, Andrei V. Rode, Jochen Küpper, Henry N. Chapman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Delivering sub-micrometer particles to an intense x-ray focus is a crucial aspect of single-particle diffractive-imaging experiments at x-ray free-electron lasers. Enabling direct visualization of sub-micrometer aerosol particle streams without interfering with the operation of the particle injector can greatly improve the overall efficiency of single-particle imaging experiments by reducing the amount of time and sample consumed during measurements. We have developed in-situ non-destructive imaging diagnostics to aid real-time particle injector optimization and x-ray/particle-beam alignment, based on laser illumination schemes and fast imaging detectors. Our diagnostics are constructed to provide a non-invasive rapid feedback on injector performance during measurements, and have been demonstrated during diffraction measurements at the FLASH free-electron laser.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6507-6521
Number of pages15
JournalOptics Express
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 21 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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