Using Research on Teaching for the Improvement of Classroom Practice

David C. Berliner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Because of the complexities of today's elementary school classroom, a conception of the teacher as executive is important in the training of teachers. Today's teacher is not trained to manage four resource centers, traveling students, the scheduling of speech pathologists, special educators; aides, paraprofessionals, computer terminal time, and also engage in record keeping for mainstreamed students and the preparation of individualized programs for all students. To find time for planning and carrying out direct instructional activity requires executive skill. But training for executive behavior is noticeably lacking in pre-service or in-service teacher education programs. Given the indicators of effective classroom instruction that have been discussed above (allocated time, engaged time, success rate, academic learning time, opportunity to learn, content coverage, curriculum test congruence and direct instruction), research into executive training for teachers would appear to be extremely important. It is this conception of the teacher as executive—perhaps even extending the metaphor to that of an underpaid and overworked executive—that needs to be seriously examined. I believe it is a metaphor from which one can design staff development programs to help teachers deal with the complexities of the modern elementary school classroom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-308
Number of pages7
JournalTheory Into Practice
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 1 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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