Universal mapping probes and the origin of human chromosome 3

Okio Hino, Joseph R. Testa, Kenneth H. Buetow, Takahiro Taguchi, Jian Yuan Zhou, Marilyn Bremer, Alan Bruzel, Raymond Yeung, Göran Levan, Karin K. Levan, Alfred G. Knudson, Kenneth D. Tartof

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Universal mapping probes (UMPs) are defined as short segments of human DNA that are useful for physical and genetic mapping in a wide variety of mammals. The most useful UMPs contain a conserved DNA sequence immediately adjoined to a highly polymorphic CA repeat. The conserved region determines physical gene location, whereas the CA repeat facilitates genetic mapping. Both the CA repeat and its neighboring sequence are highly conserved in evolution. This permits molecular, cytogenetic, and genetic mapping of UMPs throughout mammalia. UMPs are significant because they make genetic information cumulative among well-studied species and because they transfer such information from "map rich" organisms to those that are "map poor." As a demonstration of the utility of UMPs, comparative maps between human chromosome 3 (HSA3) and the rat genome have been constructed. HSA3 is defined by at least 12 syntenic clusters located on seven different rat chromosomes. These data, together with previous comparative mapping information between human, mouse, and bovine genomes, allow us to propose a distinct evolutionary pathway that connects HSA3 with the chromosomes of rodents, artiodactyls, and primates. The model predicts a parsimonious phylogenetic tree, is readily testable, and will be of considerable use for determining the pathways of mammalian evolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)730-734
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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