Understanding thin film X‐ray spectra

J. N. Chapman, W. A.P. Nicholson, P. A. Crozier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Formulae suitable for predicting X‐ray production cross‐sections in thin foils are described. A modified Bethe‐Heitler equation seems well suited to describe the production of bremsstrahlung photons and, for fixed experimental conditions, may be expressed in a simple parametric form. Simple equations for calculating characteristic photon production are less satisfactory and the predictions of different formulae differ markedly. For microanalytical purposes, however, where relative rather than absolute cross‐sections are required, the differences become less pronounced. Finally, some uses for the cross‐sections in X‐ray microanalysis are considered. 1984 Blackwell Science Ltd

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-191
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Nov 1984
Externally publishedYes


  • X‐ray cross‐sections
  • microanalysis
  • thin film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


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