Understanding Teachers’ Adoption of a Comprehensive Reform Program

Holly M. Menzies, Wendy Peia Oakes, Kathleen Lynne Lane, David James Royer, Mark Matthew Buckman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined perceptions of teachers who implemented a comprehensive school reform, the Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention. We report findings of four focus groups with a total of 18 middle and high school teachers who had implemented Ci3T for two years. We used sensemaking as a theoretical framework to understand discourse that signaled teachers’ buy-in, or opposition to, implementing this integrated tiered system of support. Findings may help administrators tailor reform efforts at their own school sites to be responsive to teachers’ concerns. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and future directions for inquiry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1066-1081
Number of pages16
JournalLeadership and Policy in Schools
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Strategy and Management


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