Two-photon lithography of platinum-porphyrin oxygen sensors

A. Cody Young, Joe Dragavon, Tim Strovas, Tim Molter, Lixin Zheng, Lloyd Burgess, Alex K.Y. Jen, Mary E. Lidstrom, Deirdre R. Meldrum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Oxygen sensing structures were generated by two-photon microfabrication. By copolymerizing metalloporphyrins with a two-photon (2P) photo-initiated polymer, oxygen sensors were patterned into complex 3-D shapes. The sensors were generated on the interior walls of small bore capillaries to allow for controlled concentrations of oxygenated water and cell-rich media to be pumped through their local environment. Phosphorescence lifetime of the patterns were acquired at known levels of O2 as a standard for measuring the respiration rate of a tiny population of bacterial cells. In addition, we report that the inclusion of the Pt-Porphyrin significantly reduces the 2P polymerization threshold. Fabricating near the inferred polymerization threshold, 3-D structures as small as 50 nm were observed in both the Pt-Porphyrin enhanced and the pure photopolymerizable monomers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)931-936
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Capillary sensors
  • Microfabrication
  • Oxygen detection
  • Two-photon (2P)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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