Triaxial catheter-tip force sensor for MRI-guided cardiac procedures

Panagiotis Polygerinos, Lakmal D. Seneviratne, Reza Razavi, Tobias Schaeffter, Kaspar Althoefer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    94 Scopus citations


    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a miniature, three-axis, fiber-optic force sensor. The sensor is manufactured using low-cost, high-resolution rapid prototyping techniques and is integrated with a catheter to enable the detection of force during MRI-guided cardiac ablation procedures. The working principle is based on reflective light-intensity modulation. A force sensitive structure (flexure) is employed to vary the distance and orientation of an integrated reflector when a force is applied at the catheter tip. In this way, the light is modulated accordingly and the force can be calculated. The sensor has a high sensitivity and an adequate linear response along all three orthogonal axes (F x, F y, and F z) and a working range of around 0.5 N. Low-noise, high-gain electronics provide a force resolution of less than 1 gm force. Experiments demonstrate the ability of the sensor to acquire accurate force readings in a dynamic environment. MRI-compatibility experiments are performed in a clinical 1.5-T MR scanner.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number6133334
    Pages (from-to)386-396
    Number of pages11
    JournalIEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - 2013


    • Catheter
    • MRI
    • fiber optic
    • triaxial force sensor

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Control and Systems Engineering
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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