Total-ionizing-dose effects in modern CMOS technologies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

512 Scopus citations


This review paper discusses several key issues associated with deep submicron CMOS devices as well as advanced semiconductor materials in ionizing radiation environments. There are, as outlined in the ITRS roadmap, numerous challenges ahead for commercial industry in its effort to track Moore's Law down to the 45 nm node and beyond. While many of the classical threats posed by ionizing radiation exposure have diminished by aggressive semiconductor scaling, the question remains whether there may be unknown, potentially worse threats lurking in the deep submicron regime. This manuscript provides a basic overview of some of the materials, devices, and designs that are being explored or, in some cases, used today. An overview of radiation threats and how radiation effects can be characterized is also presented. Last, the paper provides a detailed discussion of what we know now about how modern devices and materials respond to radiation and how we may assess, through the use of advanced analysis and modeling techniques, the relative hardness of future technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3103-3121
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2006


  • 1/f noise
  • High-k
  • Interface traps
  • Oxide trapped charge
  • RILC
  • Radiation
  • Shallow trench isolation
  • Silicon-on-insulation (SOI)
  • Total ionizing dose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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