The continued use of insecticides for public health and agriculture has led to widespread insecticide resistance and hampering of control methods. Insecticide resistance surveillance of mosquito populations is typically done through Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays or World Health Organization (WHO) tube tests. However, these methods can result in a high degree of variability in mortality data due to variable insecticide contact with the insect, the relatively small numbers of organisms tested, extensive variation in mass between populations, and constantly changing environmental conditions, leading to variable outcomes. This paper presents the topical application bioassay, adapted as a high-throughput phenotypic bioassay for both mosquitoes and fruit flies, to test large numbers of insects along a range of insecticide concentrations. This assay 1) ensures consistent treatment and insecticide contact with every organism, 2) produces highly specific dose-response curves that account for differences in average mass between strains and sexes (which is particularly important for field-collected organisms), and 3) allows for the calculation of statistically rigorous median lethal doses (LD50), which are necessary for resistance ratio comparisons-an alternative surveillance approach from diagnostic dose mortality, which is also used for larvicide resistance surveillance. This assay will be a complementary tool for accurately phenotyping mosquito populations and, as illustrated using fruit flies, is easily adaptable for use with other insects. We argue that this assay will help fill the gap between genotypic and phenotypic insecticide resistance in multiple insect species.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Neuroscience
- General Chemical Engineering
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- General Immunology and Microbiology