Title I and student achievement: A meta-analysis of federal evaluation results

Geoffrey D. Borman, Jerome V. D'Agostino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


Despite the seeming wealth of Title I evaluation information, the educational effectiveness of the program has remained debatable. Inconsistent findings can be attributed to variations in evaluation methods. Nevertheless, results from key studies have contributed to a conventional wisdom concerning Title I and student achievement. In contrast to previous reviews, this study employed metaanalytic techniques to assess the overall impact of the program on achievement and to examine the effects of mediating methodological and programmatic factors. The data were derived from 17 federal studies, ranging from 1966 to 1993, from which 657 unique effect sizes were derived. Results indicated a modest overall impact of Title I. However, the mediating factors were significant predictors. After controlling for these effects, Title I effect sizes were more favorable as the program matured. This finding may be attributable to expanded federal oversight and the growing focus on program improvement that has evolved over the years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-326
Number of pages18
JournalEducational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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