TiO2 stability landscape: Polymorphism, surface energy, and bound water energetics

Andrey A. Levchenko, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Alexandra Navrotsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

182 Scopus citations


The energetics of pure-phase rutile nanorods and spherical anatase nanoparticles have been studied by high-temperature drop solution calorimetry in 3Na2O-4MoO3 solvent at 975 K and water adsorption calorimetry in a wide range of particle sixes (surface area) from 6 to 40 nm (5-270 m2/g). The calorimetric surface enthalpies for rutile and anatase. calculated as 2.22 ± 0.07 and 0.74 ± 0.04 J/m 2, respectively, are in general agreement with Ranade et al.'s results (Proc. Natl. Acad, Sci. U.S.A., 2002, 99, 6476), although their numerical values are somewhat different because of impurities and unaccounted bound water in the previous work. This study supports the energy crossovers previously proposed for the TiO2 polymorphs. The energetics of water adsorption were measured using a commercial Calvet microcalorimeter coupled with a gas dosing system. This permitted the calculation of differential and integral enthalpies of water adsorption that characterize how tightly water binds to rutile and anatase surfaces and the calculation of adsorption entropies, which reflect the surface mobility of adsorbed water. The integral enthalpy of tightly bound water (relative to liquid H2O standard state) is -18 kJ/mol for anatase and -40 kJ/mol for rutile. As seen previously for Al2O2, the TiO2 polymorphs with higher surface energy bind water more tightly. The calculated entropy changes for the adsorption of water on TiO2 are more negative than the entropy changes for the condensation of gaseous water to hexagonal ice. This finding suggests highly restricted mobility of molecules adsorbed at initial stages of adsorption (low coverage) and, possibly, dissociative adsorption on both rutile and anatase surfaces. However, nanoparticles contain both tightly bound water and loosely bound water. The latter is characterized by energetics of bulk water. The stabilizing water contribution to the overall energy of the system makes the hydrated nanophase samples more stable. The recommended transformation enthalpy for bulk anatase to bulk rutile is -1.7 ± 0.9 kJ/mol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6324-6332
Number of pages9
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number26
StatePublished - Dec 26 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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