Extra-framework cations not only have a great impact on the structure of zeolites but also affect energetics and absorption of guest molecules. To investigate the stability and hydration of ion-exchanged zeolite ZK-5, high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and direct water absorption calorimetry were used to reveal the influence of ion exchange on formation enthalpies and hydration processes. Formation enthalpies from oxides suggest that exchanging K+ and Cs+ with protons leads to destabilization of H-ZK-5, which is accompanied by the transition to an amorphous phase at high temperature. Water absorption and corresponding enthalpies are also affected by charge-compensating cations, for example, Na+ ions in Na-ZK-5 promote the confinement of water molecules and generate higher water content and more exothermic absorption enthalpies. It is found that average ionic potentials are insufficient to explain formation enthalpies at different hydration levels, particularly for H-ZK-5 with complex cation forms. Instead, formation enthalpies from oxides generally become less exothermic as the distortion of the zeolite framework increases when replacing cations or absorbing/desorbing water molecules. This thermochemical study demonstrates the critical role of extra-framework cations and documents the complexity of ion exchange effects in zeolites with complicated topology and cation distribution.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films