Theorizing and contextualizing protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods linkages

Moren Tibabo Stone, Lesego Senyana Stone, Gyan P. Nyaupane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Although efforts have been made to connect the conservation of protected areas (PAs) to the livelihoods of people living in adjacent localities through sustainable tourism development, the debate is still evolving and inconclusive. This special issue contributes to the discourse by endeavouring to advance discussions on relationships that exist between protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods. This paper synthesizes accomplishments and challenges that exist in studying linkages between PAs, tourism and community livelihoods, which to date have been sporadic and mostly atheoretical. Empirical evidence from different researchers are highlighted to guide interested stakeholders, policy planners and practitioners to glean and adapt their strategies to achieve integrated conservation and community development. The linkages between PAs, tourism and community livelihoods can best be understood by considering different theories, conceptual frameworks and methodologies used to understand the relationship dynamics with a view to resolve the demands of livelihoods and conservation that have been advanced over the last fifty years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
StatePublished - 2022


  • Community development
  • community empowerment
  • community livelihoods linkages
  • community participation
  • conservation and development nexus
  • protected areas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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