The Trait-State-Error Model for Multiwave Data

David A. Kenny, Alex Zautra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

231 Scopus citations


Although researchers in clinical psychology routinely gather data in which many individuals respond at multiple times, there is not a standard way to analyze such data. A new approach for the analysis of such data is described. It is proposed that a person's current standing on a variable is caused by 3 sources of variance: a term that does not change (trait), a term that changes (state), and a random term (error). It is shown how structural equation modeling can be used to estimate such a model. An extended example is presented in which the correlations between variables are quite different at the trait, state, and error levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-59
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of consulting and clinical psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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