The structure of expressed emotion: A three-construct representation

Dianne L. Chambless, Gail Steketee, Angela D. Bryan, Leona S. Aiken, Jill M. Hooley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore a 3-factor model of expressed emotion (Criticism, Emotional Overinvolvement, and Positivity) in a sample of 104 outpatients with agoraphobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder and 104 relatives of these patients. Multiple methods of measurement included the Camberwell Family Interview, observation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors during patient-relative problem-solving interactions, and ratings of relatives' behavior made by patients and by relatives. The convergent validity of the 3 individual constructs was demonstrated through single- factor models fitted to Criticism, Positivity, and Emotional Overinvolvement measures. A 3-factor model was then estimated and determined to provide adequate fit to the data, thus demonstrating the distinctiveness of the constructs. Criticism and Positivity were strongly and negatively correlated, whereas Emotional Overinvolvement bore little relationship to the other 2 factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-76
Number of pages10
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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