The search for stable, massive, elementary particles

Martin L. Perl, Peter C. Kim, Valerie Halyo, Eric R. Lee, Irwin T. Lee, Dinesh Loomba, Klaus S. Lackner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches - what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2137-2164
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Modern Physics A
Issue number12
StatePublished - May 10 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


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