Activated sludge treated by ultrasound was tested as a source of exogenous electron donor to accelerate quinoline mono-oxygenation, which requires an intracellular electron donor (2H). The quinoline-removal rate was proportional to the amount of treated or untreated sludge added in flask experiments, but the best biodegradation kinetics was obtained with a mixture of 25% untreated sludge plus 75% treated sludge. The treated sludge primarily provided exogenous electron donor, while the untreated sludge provided active biomass. A biofilm system also showed the same beneficial effect of treated sludge, and the soluble fraction of the treated sludge had the greatest impact. Using treated sludge instead of a purchased electron donor provides an economic advantage for accelerating the biodegradation of contaminants whose biodegradation is initiated by an oxygenation reaction, such as quinoline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)561-566
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • Activated sludge
  • Biodegradation
  • Electron donor
  • Quinoline

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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