The national randomized field trial of success for all: Second-year outcomes

Geoffrey D. Borman, Robert E. Slavin, Alan C.K. Cheung, Anne M. Chamberlain, Nancy A. Madden, Bette Chambers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


This article reports literacy outcomes for a 2-year longitudinal student sample and a combined longitudinal and "in-mover"(i.e., those students who moved into the study schools between the initial pretest and the second-year posttest) sample, both of which were nested within 38 schools. Through the use of a cluster randomization design, schools were randomly assigned to implement Success for All or control methods. Hierarchical linear model analyses involving the longitudinal sample revealed statistically significant school-level effects of assignment to Success for All on three of the four literacy outcomes measured. Effects were as large as one quarter of a standard deviation - a learning advantage relative to controls exceeding half of a school year. Impacts for the combined longitudinal and in-mover sample were smaller in magnitude and more variable. The results correspond with the Success for All program theory, which targets school-level reform through multiyear sequencing of intensive literacy instruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)673-696
Number of pages24
JournalAmerican Educational Research Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Educational policy
  • Experimental design
  • School reform

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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