TY - JOUR

T1 - The impact of nonnormality on full information maximum-likelihood estimation for structural equation models with missing data

AU - Enders, Craig K.

PY - 2001/12

Y1 - 2001/12

N2 - A Monte Carlo simulation examined full information maximum-likelihood estimation (FIML) in structural equation models with nonnormal indicator variables. The impacts of 4 independent variables were examined (missing data algorithm, missing data rate, sample size, and distribution shape) on 4 outcome measures (parameter estimate bias, parameter estimate efficiency, standard error coverage, and model rejection rates). Across missing completely at random and missing at random patterns, FIML parameter estimates involved less bias and were generally more efficient than those of ad hoc missing data techniques. However, similar to complete-data maximum-likelihood estimation in structural equation modeling, standard errors were negatively biased and model rejection rates were inflated. Simulation results suggest that recently developed correctives for missing data (e.g., rescaled statistics and the bootstrap) can mitigate problems that stem from nonnormal data.

AB - A Monte Carlo simulation examined full information maximum-likelihood estimation (FIML) in structural equation models with nonnormal indicator variables. The impacts of 4 independent variables were examined (missing data algorithm, missing data rate, sample size, and distribution shape) on 4 outcome measures (parameter estimate bias, parameter estimate efficiency, standard error coverage, and model rejection rates). Across missing completely at random and missing at random patterns, FIML parameter estimates involved less bias and were generally more efficient than those of ad hoc missing data techniques. However, similar to complete-data maximum-likelihood estimation in structural equation modeling, standard errors were negatively biased and model rejection rates were inflated. Simulation results suggest that recently developed correctives for missing data (e.g., rescaled statistics and the bootstrap) can mitigate problems that stem from nonnormal data.

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U2 - 10.1037/1082-989x.6.4.352

DO - 10.1037/1082-989x.6.4.352

M3 - Article

C2 - 11778677

AN - SCOPUS:0035756118

SN - 1082-989X

VL - 6

SP - 352

EP - 370

JO - Psychological Methods

JF - Psychological Methods

IS - 3

ER -