The genome sequence of the leaf-cutter ant Atta cephalotes reveals insights into its obligate symbiotic lifestyle

Garret Suen, Clotilde Teiling, Lewyn Li, Carson Holt, Ehab Abouheif, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Pascal Bouffard, Eric J. Caldera, Elizabeth Cash, Amy Cavanaugh, Olgert Denas, Eran Elhaik, Marie Julie Favé, Juergen Gadau, Joshua D. Gibson, Dan Graur, Kirk J. Grubbs, Darren E. Hagen, Timothy T. Harkins, Martin HelmkampfHao Hu, Brian R. Johnson, Jay Kim, Sarah E. Marsh, Joseph A. Moeller, Mónica C. Muñoz-TorresMó, Marguerite C. Murphy, Meredith C. Naughton, Surabhi Nigam, Rick Overson, Rajendhran Rajakumar, Justin T. Reese, Jarrod J. Scott, Chris R. Smith, Shu Tao, Neil D. Tsutsui, Lumi Viljakainen, Lothar Wissler, Mark D. Yandell, Fabian Zimmer, James Taylor, Steven C. Slater, Sandra W. Clifton, Wesley C. Warren, Christine G. Elsik, Christopher D. Smith, George M. Weinstock, Nicole M. Gerardo, Cameron R. Currie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

204 Scopus citations


Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the formation of their massive colonies. Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in size from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the most complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of Atta cephalotes using 454 pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ant's lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients. Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases (which are likely unnecessary because proteolysis is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungus), a loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis (suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungus), and the absence of a hexamerin (which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects). Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the A. cephalotes genome provides new insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of this ant and advances our understanding of host-microbe symbioses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1002007
JournalPLoS genetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Cancer Research


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