The future renewable electric energy delivery and management (FREEDM) system: The energy internet

Alex Q. Huang, Mariesa L. Crow, Gerald Thomas Heydt, Jim P. Zheng, Steiner J. Dale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1493 Scopus citations


This paper presents an architecture for a future electric power distribution system that is suitable for plug-andplay of distributed renewable energy and distributed energy storage devices. Motivated by the success of the (information) Internet, the architecture described in this paper was proposed by the NSF FREEDM Systems Center, Raleigh, NC, as a roadmap for a future automated and flexible electric power distribution system. In the envisioned BEnergy Internet, [ a system that enables flexible energy sharing is proposed for consumers in a residential distribution system. The key technologies required to achieve such a vision are presented in this paper as a result of the research partnership of the FREEDM Systems Center.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-148
Number of pages16
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • Distributed generation
  • Distribution automation
  • Electric power distribution
  • Energy storage
  • Microgrid
  • Power electronics
  • Renewable energy
  • Smart grid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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