The Effects of Ballot Position on Election Outcomes

Jonathan G.S. Koppell, Jennifer A. Steen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

109 Scopus citations


This article presents evidence of name-order effects in balloting from a study of the 1998 Democratic primary in New York City, in which the order of candidates' names was rotated by precinct. In 71 of 79 individual nominating contests, candidates received a greater proportion of the vote when listed first than when listed in any other position. In seven of those 71 contests the advantage to first position exceeded the winner's margin of victory, suggesting that ballot position would have determined the election outcomes if one candidate had held the top spot in all precincts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-281
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Politics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science


Dive into the research topics of 'The Effects of Ballot Position on Election Outcomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this