The Development and Validation of the Familial Support of Multiracial Experiences Scale

The LOVING Study Collaborative

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2 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of familial support of Multiracial individuals’ unique racial experiences to advance the field’s understanding of how familial processes influence Multiracial development. A sample of 422 Multiracial college students (77.7% female, Mage = 20.05) from three different regions of the United States completed the survey. Exploratory factor analysis results suggested a two-factor measure. Multiracial Conscious Support, a 15-item subscale, represented support strategies unique to Multiracial individuals’ experiences of discrimination and identity exploration. The second 7-item subscale, Multiple Heritage Validation, represented validation of membership in multiple racial groups. The factor structure was supported by confirmatory factor analysis findings with a separate sample. Support was found for the reliability and validity of each subscale. This study provides evidence validating the first measure of familial support of Multiracial experiences, highlighting two themes of support addressing unique experiences of being Multiracial, and validating multiple racial group memberships.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-66
Number of pages27
JournalCounseling Psychologist
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • biracial
  • family support
  • measure
  • multiracial
  • racial–ethnic socialization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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