The Cross versus the Crescent: Karl Kumm’s Missiology

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This article surveys the missiology promoted in the writings of the Protestant missionary Karl Kumm during the first decades of the twentieth century. Kumm was famous as a missionary explorer. He was the first European to successfully cross the region known as the Sudan, from the Niger bend to the Nile. He was also notable because he founded two different missions in two different places in Africa, both aimed at evangelizing the peoples of the Sudan. Lastly, Kumm was significant for having constructed in his various writings a highly influential case against the evangelization of Muslims and for the evangelization of traditionalist people. Kumm, his ideas and actions helped shape government policy towards Christian missions and Christian–Muslim relations in colonial Northern Nigeria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-503
Number of pages21
JournalIslam and Christian-Muslim Relations
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2 2019


  • British evangelicals
  • Northern Nigeria
  • Sinussi
  • Sudan
  • Sudan United Mission
  • indirect rule
  • pilgrimage
  • slave-raiding
  • the Cross versus the Crescent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Religious studies
  • Political Science and International Relations


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