Testing the reciprocity norm in a recreation management setting

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7 Scopus citations


This study was designed to determine whether the relationship between municipal recreation directors and recreation advisory board members in small com­munities is based on the norm of reciprocity. Past literature on social exchange theory has suggested that relationships that are successful and sustained over time are char­acterized by a certain quid pro quo or reciprocal arrangement. Specifically, three hypotheses were tested through a survey sample of 84 recreation directors and 470 board members in western Canada. Results of the analysis of variance and analysis of covariance revealed that one hypothesis was sustained, suggesting that some elements of reciprocity exist. The results from the remaining two hypotheses were contrary to what was asserted, however, indicating that reciprocity was not generally the norm in the relationship. The discussion focuses on the reasons for the lack of reciprocity and the implications arising from that result.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-365
Number of pages13
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • Municipal rccreation
  • Reciprocity
  • Recreation boards
  • Recreation di­rectors
  • Social exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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