Teachers’ Gender-Role Attitudes and Gendered Classroom Practices

Flora Farago, Carol Lynn Martin, Kristen L. Granger, Carlos Santos, Cindy Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study used an online survey in the U.S. to examine Pre-K, 2nd, and 5th grade (N = 539) teachers’ (81% white; 94% female) gendered classroom practices (i.e., promotion of gender salience, gender segregation, gender integration) as well as the effects of gender-role attitudes on these practices. The promotion of gender salience entailed practices such as the use of gender labels and setting up competitions between boys and girls. The promotion of gender segregation entailed practices facilitating same-gender student interactions whereas the promotion of gender integration entailed practices facilitating mixed-gender interactions. Teachers reported making gender salient a few times a month, frequently promoting gender integration, and infrequently promoting gender segregation. Preschool teachers promoted gender salience and gender segregation less often than elementary school teachers. Teachers were more likely to assign students to mixed-sex groups than to same-sex groups for the following reasons: students need experience with other-sex (vs. same-sex) students; it is an efficient and easy way to group students; and, it cuts down on discipline problems. On average, teachers held egalitarian gender-role attitudes. Holding more traditional gender-role attitudes was positively associated with the promotion of gender salience and gender segregation; however, there was no relation between gender-role attitudes and the promotion of gender integration. These findings have implications for classroom practices and teacher professional development, and for the promotion of gender diverse experiences in the classroom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)471-486
Number of pages16
JournalSex Roles
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Gender integration
  • Gender labels
  • Gender segregation
  • Gender-role attitudes
  • Gendered classroom practices
  • Teachers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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