Teacher Responses to Two Types of Consultative Special Education Services

Ann C. Schulte, Susan S. Osborne, James M. Kauffman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Elementary general education teachers who had students with learning disabilities in their classes received consultation from experienced special education teachers using one of two models: a model combining teacher consultation and direct instruction (C/D, n = 20), or an indirect services model consisting solely of consultation (C/I, n = 14). The teachers completed pre/post questionnaires and an interview assessing their responses to the two models. A third group of teachers from the same schools who did not receive consultation also responded to the questionnaires (control, n = 13). Results indicated that teachers (a) preferred a consultation model that involved collaboration between the general education teacher and special education teacher across all stages of problem solving; (b) preferred consultation over referral, although those receiving C/I tended to lose this preference over time; (c) saw students problems as more severe after receiving CID but not C/I; and (d) had different views of C/D and C/I. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Educational and Psychological Consultation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Teacher Responses to Two Types of Consultative Special Education Services'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this