Switching behavior of nanoscale Co ferromagnetic elements using off-axis electron holography

H. Hu, H. Wang, Martha McCartney, David Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The switching behavior of 20-nm-thick nanoscale Co ferromagnets has been investigated using the technique of off-axis electron holography. Elements having elliptical, dumbbell, ring and "Pacman" shapes were fabricated on electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes using standard electron-beam lithography and lift-off techniques. Ellipses generally showed linear switching but interactions between closely spaced elements occasionally caused inconsistent switching. Dumbbells, rings and disk-like Pacman shapes developed intermediate vortex states during switching, which caused broad switching fields. Ring-like Pacman shapes had negligible fringing field and switched very rapidly without the formation of any vortex state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)234-237
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
Volume290-291 PART 1
StatePublished - Apr 2005


  • Co ferromagnets
  • Electron holography
  • Switching field
  • Vortex state

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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