The development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has become a critical milestone in modern oncotherapy. Despite the remarkable in vitro effectiveness, the problem of safety and efficacy of CAR T cell therapy against solid tumors is challenged by the lack of tumor-specific antigens required to avoid on-target off-tumor effects. Spatially separating the cytotoxic function of CAR T cells from tumor antigen recognition provided by protein mediators allows for the precise control of CAR T cell cytotoxicity. Here, the high affinity and capability of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin barnase-barstar system were adopted to guide CAR T cells to solid tumors. The complementary modules based on (1) ankyrin repeat (DARPin)-barnase proteins and (2) barstar-based CAR (BsCAR) were designed to provide switchable targeting to tumor cells. The alteration of the DARPin-barnase switches enabled the targeting of different tumor antigens with a single BsCAR. A gradual increase in cytokine release and tunable BsCAR T cell cytotoxicity was achieved by varying DARPin-barnase loads. Switchable BsCAR T cell therapy was able to eradicate the HER2+ ductal carcinoma in vivo. Guiding BsCAR T cells by DARPin-barnase switches provides a universal approach for a controlled multitargeted adoptive immunotherapy.
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Nov 15 2022
- CAR T cells
- barnase–barstar interaction
- solid tumors
- switchable adoptive immunotherapy (SAI)
ASJC Scopus subject areas