Swarm Signal Temporal Logic Inference for Swarm Behavior Analysis

Ruixuan Yan, Zhe Xu, Agung Julius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


In this letter, we propose methods to perform swarm behavior analysis with a novel swarm signal temporal logic (SwarmSTL). We define generalized moments to describe swarm features and propose a logical proposition to represent an event, where the Boolean value of the logical proposition at a certain time is known a priori. We develop methods for SwarmSTL monitoring and inference. As the swarm size can be large, we also propose methods to perform the above tasks by sampling. The methods are applied to three case studies that aim to monitor swarm 'maneuver' behavior, infer a SwarmSTL formula to describe the cause of split, and explore a SwarmSTL formula to describe 'mixed-species foraging flock' of birds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8744570
Pages (from-to)3021-3028
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Formal methods in robotics and automation
  • Optimization and optimal control
  • Swarms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence


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