Subsurface strain in the Ge(001) and Ge(111) surfaces and comparison to silicon

R. J. Culbertson, Y. Kuk, L. C. Feldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


The subsurface strain associated with surface reconstruction was measured for the Ge(001)-c(4×2) and Ge(111)-c(2×8) surfaces using high energy ion scattering. In the case of the Ge(001) surface we find the equivalent of ∼3 monolayers displaced by more than 0.12 Å, in accord with dimer models of the surface reconstruction. For the Ge(111) surface displacements are observed in off-normal incidence, indicating large displacements perpendicular to the surface or other reconstructions, such as a stacking fault configuration. The relationship between subsurface strain and stacking fault models is also discussed. The subsurface strain in these two Ge surfaces is remarkably similar to that of the corresponding Si surfaces, even though the details of the surface reconstruction are different. Measurements at low temperature indicate that the strain is essentially temperature independent, as expected. Measurements of the hydrogen covered surfaces show little change is strain, a surprising result when compared to the behavior of Si(001).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-140
Number of pages14
JournalSurface Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 1986
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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