Subjective well-being measures: Reliability and validity among Spanish elders

W. A. Stock, M. A. Okun, J. G. Benito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Life Satisfaction Index, and Affect Balance Scale were translated into Castilian Spanish and Catalan. Responses to these scales were obtained by interviews with 151 elderly persons living in Spain. Reliability estimates for the Life Satisfaction Index and the Affect Balance subscales were comparable to those for English- speaking samples, while reliability estimates for the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale were somewhat lower. Validity estimates among these scales were consistent with previous research and previously reported factor structures were found to fit the present data reasonably well, although factor loadings were lower than those previously reported. English and translated versions of the scales are provided in Appendix A.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-235
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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