Structure and Properties of Matter

Yoshio Waseda, Seetharaman Sridhar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This introductory chapter starts with a differentiation between the states of matter, wherein the common ones are solids which are fixed in volume and shape, liquids that have no predetermined shape, and gases that have no predetermined shape nor volume. Glass and plasma are also noted, as the rather uncommon states but they are frequently present in certain metallurgical processes. The states are discussed based upon intermolecular/ionic relationships which give rise to the variety of observed properties. A discussion is given to the commonly encountered fluids with regard to why and how they differ from the solid and gaseous states. The pertinent thermodynamic properties of melting point, boiling point, and critical temperature are introduced. The glass transition is also included.A knowledge of the atomic scale structure of fluids such as metallic liquids and oxide melts, which are closely related to various metallurgical processes, is essential to the understanding of their characteristic properties. The in situ measurement on fluids by techniques such as X-ray diffraction has provided successfully direct fundamental information of the structure of metallurgical melts. Thus, this chapter also provides an essential procedure for determining the structure of fluids using X-rays with some selected structural features of metallic and oxide melts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProcess Fundamentals
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)9780080969862
StatePublished - Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • A least-squares analysis
  • A spurious ripple
  • Allotropes
  • Amorphous
  • Average number density
  • Clausius-Clapeyron relation
  • Close packing
  • Condensation
  • Coordination number
  • Deposition
  • Fluid
  • Fourier transformation
  • Freezing
  • Gas
  • Glass
  • Glass transition
  • Incoherent scattering
  • Interference function
  • Liquid
  • Local ordering unit structure
  • Melt
  • Melting
  • Molecular dynamics
  • Pair function analysis
  • Phase transition
  • Plasma
  • Radial distribution function
  • Root mean square displacements
  • Solid
  • State of matter
  • Structure
  • Sublimation
  • Tetrahedron
  • The first-order transition
  • The second-order transition
  • Truncation effect
  • Vacant space
  • Vaporization
  • Virification
  • Wave vector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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