Stippling by example

Sung Ye Kim, Ross Maciejewski, Tobias Isenberg, William M. Andrews, Wei Chen, Mario Costa Sousa, David S. Ebert

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

48 Scopus citations


In this work, we focus on stippling as an artistic style and discuss our technique for capturing and reproducing stipple features unique to an individual artist. We employ a texture synthesis algorithm based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of a texture field. This algorithm uses a texture similarity metric to generate stipple textures that are perceptually similar to input samples, allowing us to better capture and reproduce stipple distributions.First, we extract example stipple textures representing various tones in order to create an approximate tone map used by the artist. Second, we extract the stipple marks and distributions from the extracted example textures, generating both a lookup table of stipple marks and a texture representing the stipple distribution. Third, we use the distribution of stipples to synthesize similar distributions with slight variations using a numerical measure of the error between the synthesized texture and the example texture as the basis for replication. Finally, we apply the synthesized stipple distribution to a 2D grayscale image and place stipple marks onto the distribution, thereby creating a stippled image that is statistically similar to images created by the example artist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of NPAR 2009
Subtitle of host publicationThe 7th International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes
EventNPAR 2009: The 7th International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering - New Orleans, LA, United States
Duration: Aug 1 2009Aug 2 2009

Publication series

NameNPAR Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering


ConferenceNPAR 2009: The 7th International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNew Orleans, LA


  • Computer-generated stippling
  • Statistical similarity
  • Stipple mark distribution
  • Stippling by example
  • Texture analysis and synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Mathematics
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Modeling and Simulation


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